typography and type : The Letter : Development of type II tourbitte scrollen top tour

Phönizisch: Aleph (Ochse)
Phoenician: aleph (Ox)

From natural depictions several peoples developped simplified and abstracted pictorial depictions and symbols, which are called word-picture-writing or also picture-type.

The Phoenicians developped between 2000 and 1300 before Christ a consonant-type, which makes already foresee the latin characters used today.
vereinfachte Darstellung von Aleph
simplified term of »aleph«

römische Capitalis: Alpha
Roman Capitalis: Alpha

These characters were taken and widened by the Greeks about 1100 before Christ. They replaced some letters and added the vocals.

But their actual achievement was to give geometric shapes (square, triangle, circle) to the characters. This type-face matches largely with today's capital letters.

The Romans took the greek characters and shaped – carved in stone – a pure capital letter type. In this way, already in 4. to 2. century b. Chr., the Capitalis Monumentalis arised. She is the basis for today's roman capital letters.

Beside the capital letter type carved in stone, also written types developped (Capitalis Quadrata, Capitalis Rustica), which were written in wax boards with a slate pencil.